"Tontousuyu Thehotte": "The
Creation of the Universe" -
Below is a linguistic analysis of this Atlantean document, which is included in the original papers that I, as editor, have collated and published. This work analyses the grammar and vocabulary of the document word by word. The English translation is written in italics underneath the original Atlantean in an absolutely literal translation. After that, each line and word is discussed individually. All Atlantean words are in italics. All Juralic words have * in front of them, as they are purely suppositional.
Stress has been shown in the first few sentences, by making the stressed vowel or diphthong bold.
1. TONTOUSUYU THEHOTTE
Order of words:
the genitive (tontousuyu) comes first, as is usual in Atlantean.
creation, noun form from theh (to build, create), cf thehon
(creator), teh (to do), teih (to behave, act).
Note that Atlantean does not normally use a word for the definite article, unless there is a desire to be emphatic.
eanathe bour thehon tontousuyu,
Siurgesusil: Locative sing of siurgeso (beginning), noun form from siurg, itself formed from sil (in) + urg (to go).
Eanathe: (Irregular) past tense, third pers sing of ois (to be). Note that the verb "to be" is irregular in all the descendant languages of Juralic. Thus in Chalcran the verb "to be" is as, and the third person past tense, equivalent to the Atlantean eanathe, is irassa. In Helvran, "to be" is oz, and the third person past tense is id. Finally the Yalland for "to be" is oiroven, and the third person past tense is oirodo. The third person gas different endings for masculine, feminine and neuter, but these are only obvious in Chalcran and Yalland, and of course the original Juralic.
Bour: Nom sing of bour (great)
Thehon: "Creator", from theh (to create) with suffix -on, equivalent to English -er or -or.
Can: Can mean own or, as here, self.
Dithehax: Di- is a prefix meaning dis- or un-. Thehax is the past participle of theh.
Endao: En- is a prefix meaning original, basic.
luphuyu e risayu aisondur, thehathe
Luphuyu: Gen sing of lupho (light). This comes from Jur. lo:pho:, and would normally be *loupho in Atlantean. In fact the North Atlantean form, lupho, was adopted in the general language. Compare also Chalcran lupo, also with the "u". The N. Atlantean dialect is in some cases closer to Chalcran than standard Atlantean.
risayu: Gen sing of ris (air).
present participle of ois (to be) (irregular).
thehathe: past third pers sing of theh (to create)
deican: Himself, properly deihcan, where the "h" went missing. Compare also sueican (herself), zueican (itself) and heican (themselves). With the first and second persons, can (self) was not usually used at all, just the accusative pronoun on its own. However, in the third person, the form with can was usual, as there might otherwise be ambiguity as to whether the words referred to someone else ( "he created everything out of him", ie: another person) or "himself", as is here meant.
4. Enan thuyan
Sentence construction: Note the use of the past participle, doreienaxa, "sent", used instead of the English conjunction plus clause: "after he had sent a wind..."
tuaincar, naohuar, nundar,
gestar: the allative form of these nouns, meaning "(sent) to
the south, etc". Gest comes from Jur. *geste:, which
would normally have become *yest in Atlantean, but in fact the
Helvran version of the word was adopted: gest. Quite a few words were
adopted into Atlantean with Helvran spellings, when the Helvrans possibly
dominated the Atlanteans and Chalcrans, before the Atlanteans moved off west
around -350. Other examples include pueggis ("battle"), cf
Helv prigz; daizen ("lord"), cf Helv. daiz;
and belda ("galley"), cf Helv. beld. (These all came
from common Juralic roots). It can be seen that these words tended to be
military or denote forms of government, tending to add to the conclusion
that the Atlanteans, at that time, were under the thumb of the Helvrans. In
the case of gest, it seems likely that the Helvran form was taken
over to distinguish it from yest, "red", which in Juralic
was the same word as "east", ie gest (the idea being that
the sky is red in the east at sunrise). It is notable that possible
confusion between the two words may have led to Jur. gest, meaning
"red", vanishing from both Helvran and Yalland. Chalcran kept giest
for both meanings.
5. danathe dao heihain saophettun e
e tontix ernathen daolix.
danathe: past tense, third person singular of dan, to give. Note that when a clause, or anything else, precedes the main part of a sentence, the verb of the main section comes next, before the subject (here: "God").
heihain: the dative form of the third person plural pronoun. Such dative forms only existed for pronouns in the third person, in the classical language, and then only in literary use. Otherwise the form would be the same as the accusative. But it always preceded an accusative pronoun or noun, so there would not normally be any confusion.
saophettun: accusative of saophettu, "awareness". Saophette, on the other hand, meant "consciousness". Both forms came from Atlantean saoph, "to understand". This in turn descended from Juralic saoph, which actually meant "to study". It changed its meaning in all the later Juralic languages. The original Juralic word for "to understand" was "*weuz", which died out later, but was preserved in certain related words in Atlantean, such as feyette ("lore" later "magic"), and feyetton ("magician"). There had always been another word for "lore" in Juralic, *sa:phe:, which came to mean "learning" in Atlantean (saphe).
mayan: accusative of
maya, power. The original Juralic was *ma:ya:, the grade 1 root. (See
Historical grammar of Juralic languages,1, introduction and verbs,
for details about the different grade-changes in Juralic).
Daolix: strictly means divine, here translated as "gods".
6. Thai buou anthuix
eathen enuix, per thiai buou eathen sualix,
Thai: plural of thair etc "that" or also "the former" (irregular declension).
Thiai: plural of thial, etc, "this" or also "the latter" (irregular declension).
anthuix: nom plural of anthuye, "wind-gods". An- is a prefix meaning adding personalisation (ie: the winds here are people, or gods).
tuaince e naohue, nunde e geste.
anthuyetix: the old dual form in
the plural, translated here as "the pairs of".
8. Ian taiyathe dao tuaincanthuyan
ei lemb tuaincar dimeu thain luphun e
tense, third person sing of tail, "to tell". This verb
comes from the second grade Juralic form, *ta:il, "to
talk". The first grade was *tala (story) > Atl tal (story)
and sayatal (history, literally "story of peoples, where people
lemb: "to take". Note another word for "to take", rett", which means "to procure, snatch". Lemb is more neutral and means "take" in the sense "remove".
"some, a little", from di ("not") and meu ("much").
The Juralic word *ameu:bu:, which had the stress on "e:u"
became Atl meu. There were other related forms to this in Juralic,
but their forms in Atlantean were quite different, due to the fact that
stress in Early Juralic was sometimes variable. Thus Early Juralic *ame:ba:
(quantity, number)(stress on the "a") > Late Juralic: amba,
emba, abba. This was amba (multitude) in Atlantean, as well as
the suffixes - emba, -abbe or -ebbe, meaning " a collection
of", eg: felemba, a group of trees.
luphun: accusative sing of lupho (light). This is from Jur, grade 1 *lo:pho:, in the North Atlantean dialect form (see above). Related is Jur. grade 2 lo:ipho: (heat) > Atl laipho, and Jur grade 3 lo:phyen > Atl luphien ("to brighten").
9. laiphun, deucies exathe
theh enun bourbun ousun ahneyun, til folgiensan.
laiphun: "heat" (see above, under "luphun").
ousun: "being", accusative singular of ouso. The Juralic for this was *o:so:, a noun form from *o:is, "to be" > Atlantean ais. (See also "tontousuyu" at top of page.). Anouso was a word deliberately invented by Atlantean philosophers, with the prefix an-, for personalisation, and meaning a" pantheistic god", or more literally, a "personal divine being". Anousto then meant "pantheism".
ahneyun: "fiery", accusative of the adjective related to Atl. ahna, "fire".
Dorse ernathe folgiens dayun ceyun.
dayun: accusative singular of dao, "god". Atlantean, unlike some languages, uses the accusative after the verb "to become": only ais, "to be", requires the nominative. Dao is one of the few Atlantean verbs which has a completely irregular declension. Its suffixes are unpredictable, largely because it is such a short, one-syllable verb, that endings have frequently dropped off or been reduced.
11. Uyehe taiyathe naoanthuyan ei lemb naohuar
dimeu luphun, per denun laiphun.
uyehe: "similarly". This is the adverbial form of ul, "similar". Ul is also a preposition meaning "like". Related too is the conjunction ulle, meaning "as".
denun: "no" (accusative case of the adjective den). There are many other words linked to the basic Juralic root, *dekh:, "no", which was used as a prefix to make a verbal statement negative. This became de (h)- in Atlantean, and could also be used attached to a noun in the sense of "a-" or "non-". The basic word "no" (as opposed to "yes") is deh in Atlantean (Chalcran: dech: Helv: dek; Yall: deck). There is also dehles, which strictly means "never", but was often used as an emphatic form of negativisation. Additional linked words are dehettu ("nothing"), dehon ("nobody"), dehiettu ("destruction") and dehimettu ("nihilist"). This last word was invented in the 780s to identify the new terrorists of the period, and is formed using the suffix -imettu, from -im + itto, and meaning the equivalent of the English "-ism".
12. Dorse thehapheth
noura, daodie cintuye.
thehapheth: past passive, third person, of theh ("to do").
daodie: female god - formed adding the feminine ending -ie to dao. Note the "d" reappears before this suffix. It is normally lost, but of course the original Juralic for dao was *da:uda, and for a female god, it was *da:udille. It is also evident in related languages like Chalcran: doda and Helvran dad.
13. Narcehe enuanathen
folgiens e noura.
enuanathen: third person plural, past tense, of enuan ("to marry, become married" - intransitive sense). The transitive form of the verb is enien. The root of these words is *e:n- in Juralic, with the basic meaning "single, a(n)", leading to Atlantean en ("a, an", with the "e" pronounced short). There is also Juralic *e:no: > Atl eino, meaning "a person", the adjective of which, einul, interestingly soon came to mean "male". ("Female" was sual, from the root meaning "woman"). Another version of the original Juralic word, namely *e:un, led to Atlantean en ("one"), with the "e" pronounced long. Juralic *e:un is of course the origin of Atlantean enuan, in the sense of "to become one". Another Juralic root was *e:na:, (Atl: eina) meaning "basic, fundamental", and related to this was *ena (Atl: en) ("seed, germ"). The former is used as a prefix in Atlantean, en-, with the meaning of "original, basic", and by extension, "self-". But as can be easily imagined, all of these very similar words and meanings easily became confused in later Atlantean.
doriaphethen nundar e gestar, deucies exathen theh
douriaphethen: third person plural past passive of dourien, "to send", itself formed from dour "to move" plus transitive suffix -ien. Note that in the passive, as in a number of other moods and tenses involving lengthy suffixes, the -en of the suffix disappears.
15. meu pustix tincsix
tincsix: plural of tincso "glint, sparkle".
tincix: plural of tincu, "star". Both these words are linked, of course, and derive from Juralic *tink, "to sparkle". Tincso adds the noun-making suffix -so to the verb. Tincu , from Juralic tinku, is also from the same root originally (as stars are "sparkling" or "twinkling" objects).
15. Per en can enu ernathe dao,
en can: only, alone. From Jur. *e:un kan. literally "one itself". En can is indeclinable in Atlantean. It can also be a preposition, followed by the genitive case, in which case it means "except". The same word, written as one, ie: encan, means "unique" and in this case is a declinable adjective.
enu: en governing "antincu", hence the ending "u".
16. Thial eathe diehe dao
huaccul bei einaibe.
diehe: the adverbial form created, unusually, from a preposition, dia ("before") (+ehe). Dia came from Jur. dira:
pear: from Juralic perer (although). The North Atlantean form with "ea" was adopted by standard Atlantean, probably to avoid confusion with per ("but").
17. Ian thehathe
dao can zuayan
e dunan, tommanan ernaxan.
Note again the use of the past participle of ern ("to become"), ie: ernaxa, to translate which into English, we have to use a subordinate clause.
18. Engio e duna
ernathen dai, per tommana can
Dehles: as mentioned above, this literally meant "never". It was used colloquially to mean "not" in an emphatic form. Here it is again used emphatically and in an abbreviated expression, which in English we would have to translate "but the World (definitely) itself did not".
19. Narcies thehathe
tontan teccan tommanasil, failix, fondix
Teccan: accusative singular of tec, sometimes written tecc. The original Juralic root, *tegga, meant "day", but this meaning became antiquated in later Atlantean and Chalcran, probably from Atlanchalcric times. It remains in the days of the week, eg: nouratecc ("Monday"), literally "moon-day", as in English; tuainnecc ("Tuesday"), where the "te" of "tecc" has been absorbed - this word literally means "south-day"; and so on through the week. Tec also remained in classical Atlantean as a poetical or literary word for "life", as here. It was kept alive in the philosophy of "genandourso" ("apartness"). The normal word adopted in standard Atlantean for "life" is iasai. This comes from Juralic Ya:sisu: ("year") > ya:sisu:i: (plural form), which came to mean "life". Iasai thus preserves the old form of the plural, and is declined as a plural noun, despite often having a singular meaning. The correct Atlantean plural, iasix, existed as well, meaning "years". "Year" was iasu.
failix: plural of fail, "plant". The original Juralic was *wa:ila:, and the related (grade 3) word was *wa:il ("green") > Atl. fail. Also failette ("countryside").
fondix: plural of fondo, "animal".
enai, aisondur saopheyix e tuellissix
Deucies exathen saoph enai: As usual, when a word other than the subject of a sentence is placed first (here deucies), the verb follows and the real subject comes last (enai).
aisondur: present participle of ais (to be). Atlantean frequently uses present participles in places where English would use a relative clause, with who or that. Thus a proper English translation of this section is: "In order that people, who were conscious..." In Atlantean, the present participle must be adjacent to the noun it qualifies in such cases, here enai.
fondai: Ablative plural case, which is always used after comparative adjectives, and which corresponds to English "(higher) than (animals)".
21. per undunissix
dai, ye thehapheth
tommana, rottiurgiathe dao graohan, daothaxan.
per...: another clause dependent on enai. Such convoluted constructions are typical of high religious literature of this period.
ye: this clause depends on exathen saoph ("were able to understand how...")
22. Naittuyehe naimiathen zuei tainna
einain heiheyun siurgesun.
person singular neutral, past tense, of naimien, "to remind."
Related to this verb is *no:im in Juralic, meaning to remember. This
became naim in Atlantean. Naimien is the transitive
formation using -ien, meaning "to remind". It commands the
dative case, see einain, dative plural ("(to) mankind") as
its object (accusative in English) and the accusative for the sense ("of
(its origin)") = heiheyun siurgesun, which is in the genitive case
in English. Dimaimien (see in the text further on) means "to not
remember", ie: "to forget".
tainna: "noise". This is linked, as the third grade, to tanna, "sound".
23. Yaincu ai cencathen einai crehix naittuyehe naimathen graohan e mayan
Yaincu ai: "whenever". Several interrogative and relative pronouns and can be formed using ai ("ever"), as in English, thus: ciesan ai ("whatever"), ycul ai ("wherever"), cian ai ("whoever"), ye ai ("however").
24. Missies dinaimathen ianan Endan e pethathen cies easiasen en can til thehaxix
pethathen cies easiasen..: this means "they thought that there were.. Note that "there" is not required and hence is omitted in Atlantean. Easiasen is the third person plural of the past subjunctive of the irregular verb ais ("to be"). The subjunctive appears here as the clause it is in follows pethathen ("They thought"), ie: there is some doubt about it. The subjunctive is used in all uncertain or doubtful statements, after "to doubt", "to fear", ""to wonder". "To think", as here, as well as "to say" and "to seem" usually took the indicative, in fact, as they were more definite, except in very literary language, as in the present case.
25. Dao thehathe ainurgonduehe misse dai – anahnughoyan, ancrulsun, e andunarursun,
e narcies sunathe
anahnghoyan, ancrulsun e andunarursun: each of these words has "an-" prefixing it, which "personalises" it, and in fact needs to be translated here as "divine..." or "...gods".
ahnughoyan: accusative singular of ahnughol, "volcano". This word stems from ahna ("fire") prefixed to ughol ("mountain"). Ughol itself was borrowed directly from Ughan, in which "mountain" is udgh. Probably the great "Gestix Ugholix", the highest mountain-range on the Great Continent, on the border of Ughrieh impressed the Atlanteans so much, that they considered them the only real mountains in existence, and took over the word for "mountain" directly from the Ughan. Even the word Ughan (Udgh) meant originally in the Ughan language something like "the people who live in mountains".
crulsun: accusative singular of crulso, the North Atlantean form from Juralic kro:liso: ("ice"). Linked is Atlantean crull, from Juralic *kroll, ("cold", again in the North Atlantean form.
dunarursun: accusative singular of dunarurso, "earthquake". This comes from duna ("earth") and rur, "to shake" > rurso "shaking", "quake". Note that dun itself, meaning "earth", is obviously closely linked to dun ("brown"). They are the same words in Helvran (diun).
26. Per dai can, cian naittuyehe taildaphethen bourdai, rottiugiathen meu pustissix
cianai taildethen enai til
cian, cianai: cian is the nominative singular case of cian ("who"), whereas cianai is the accusative plural case (in the last part of the sentence).