1. Consonant changes between Juralic and Atlantean.
Because of regular historical developments in the phonetic structure between Juralic and Atlantean, some consonants in certain positions changed to vowels, or disappeared. This led to some nouns (as well as adjectives and adverbs, and the conjugation of some verbs, for all of which see below) appearing to have irregular declensions. At the same time, these historical changes, as well as the loss of unstressed vowels in final positions, led sometimes to several vowels ending up next to each other. However, only certain vowels and diphthongs were allowed to be sounded together, and these are called the "permissible vowel combinations". Where certain vowels, which were not allowed to sound next to each other, nevertheless were likely to end up together, the original consonant, which otherwise changed to a vowel or disappeared completely, was left in place.
The historical phonetic changes that need to be noticed are as follows. These occurred between the era of Atlanchalcric and Chalcran, and are hence not evident in Chalcran.
1. Between vowels, l > y. p > ph b, r disappear (if on their own)..
2. When final, m > n. b, d, g, p, t, c disappear (if preceded by no other consonant).
3. When finally after n, f, l b > p d > t g > c
Now these changes are visible in the root cases of words, when the Juralic or Chalcran forms are compared with Atlantean. Below are examples (J = Juralic; C = Chalcran; A = Atlantean):
3. b disappears J: lob (long) > C: lub, A: lou
4. r disappears J: dhe:rino (four) > C: tiare, A: thein
Now, as mentioned above, the disappearance of b,d,g,p,t,c, and r between vowels or finally, as well as the change of l to y between vowels, could lead to various vowels ending up next to each other. Below is the list of permissible combinations. If any other vowels were likely to find themselves in close proximity, the original consonant would normally stay in place. These "irregularities" occur most often when declensional endings were added to nouns or adjectives; when comparative or superlative formations were added to adjectives or adverbs; and when conjugational endings (including suffixes for moods or voice) were added to verbs.
Vowel - vowel
1. aua, aya; aue, aye; ai, aui; ao, ayo, auo; ayi, ayu
2. ea, eua, eya; eue, eye; eyi; eo, eyo, euo; eyu
3. ia, ie, io, iu
4. oa, oua, oya; oue, oye; oyi, oyo, ouo; ou, oyo, ouo; oyu
5. ua, uya; ue, uye; ui; uo, uyo; uyu
Diphthong preceding vowel
1. ai + vowel. Permissible before a,e,o,u. The i of ai becomes ay, eg ayo, ayu
2. ao + vowel. Treat as a + vowel
3. ou + a,e,o permissible. Before y + vowel, ou > o, ou or oy
4. ei + vowel. Permissible before a,e,o,u. The i of ei becomes ay, eg eyo, eyu
5. ie + vowel not permissible.
Diphthong following vowel
1. +ai. Will follow i, u, y
2. +ao. Will only follow i.
3. +ou. Will only follow i, y.
4. +ei. Will follow i, u, y.
Any other diphthongs will not combine with another vowel.
3. The irregular declensions.
Traditionally, irregular nouns were divided into three "types", depending on what happened to their endings in declensions. These changes are in fact all explicable by historical phonetic developments, as detailled above.
I. TYPE 1: Noun roots ending on -l, -r, -n, in nominative singular (ie: belonging to the consonantal declension - no. 1).
1. n > m in oblique and plural cases, if the "m"
was the original ending in all cases.
2. l > y when followed by a vowel, ie: in all oblique and plural cases, except the locative singular. (But this depended on the permitted combinations, see 2 above).
Example: ful (nom sing, grass), fuyan (acc sing), fulsil (loc sing), BUT fulao (abl sing). (See 1 and 2 above).
3. r > vanished when followed by a vowel, ie in all oblique and plural cases, except the locative singular. But again this depended on the permitted combinations, see 2 above).
Example: aldor (nom sing, official), aldorsil (loc sing), aldorix (nom/acc plural), etc (see 1 and 2 above).
II. TYPE 2: Noun roots ending in a vowel in the nominative singular (ie: belonging to declensions 2 and 3), but with a plosive interpolated before the oblique cases.
Nouns which originally ended in -d, -b, -t lost this plosive in the nominative and vocative singular cases, but it reappeared before a vowel in all oblique and plural cases.
Examples: recce (nom sing, law), reccetan (acc sing)
III. TYPE 3: Noun roots ending in -nt, -np, -nc, -lt, -lp, -lc in the nominative singular of declension 1 (consonantal declension).
These noun endings became -nd, -nb, -ng, -ld, -lb, -lg in oblique and plural cases, if they originally ended in these voiced plosives in all cases (See 3 of section 1 above).
Examples: talt (nom sing, name), taldan (acc sing)
There are a few nouns which are completely irregular. These include: dao (god), celeuo (noble), mai (control), (mand)engio (island / sea).
Examples of old (Juralic) and obsolete endings can be seen in certain places. To learn about these, go to: Remains of obsolete endings in Atlantean nouns
Home Page Languages - introduction The Atlantean language Details of the Atlantean verb Atlantean numerals 1 Atlantean numerals 2 Irregular Atlantean adjectives and adverbs Irregular Atlantean verbs Remains of obsolete endings in Atlantean nouns The Juralic languages Juralic languages vocabulary (1) a-b Juralic-Atlantean-English vocabulary a-d Atlantean-English-Juralic vocabulary a-d Non-Juralic languages Creation of the world - analysis Atlantean personal names Place names of the Great Continent place names elements