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"Tontousuyu Thehotte": "The Creation of the Universe" - 
A linguistic analysis.

Below is a linguistic analysis of this Atlantean document, which is included in the original papers that I, as editor, have collated and published. This work analyses the grammar and vocabulary of the document  word by word. The English translation is written in italics underneath the original Atlantean in an absolutely literal translation. After that, each line and word is discussed individually. All Atlantean words are in italics. All Juralic words have * in front of them, as they are purely suppositional.

Stress has been shown in the first few sentences, by making the stressed vowel or diphthong bold.

 

1. TONTOUSUYU THEHOTTE
Of the universe                        creation

Order of words: the genitive (tontousuyu) comes first, as is usual in Atlantean.
Tontousuyu: genitive singular of tontouso (universe), consisting of the prefix tont (all) and ouso (existence, being), the noun form related to ais (to be) (Juralic *o:is).

Thehotte: creation, noun form from theh (to build, create), cf thehon (creator), teh (to do), teih (to behave, act).
There are several related forms here which come the related Juralic verbs *teukh: (to do) > teh;  and *te:kh: (to behave) > teih, respectively grades 3 and 2 of the basic, grade 1 Juralic root tekh: (to live, exist) - this did not survive in any of the descendant languages.
There is yet another root related to these: *theukh: an emphatic Juralic form, is the ancestor of theh (to create), from which thehotte is formed, as we have seen. 

Note that Atlantean does not normally use a word for the definite article, unless there is a desire to be emphatic.

 

2. Siurgesusil            eanathe bour thehon tontousuyu,         can        dithehax, 
In the beginning  
was    Great Creator of Universe,     Himself uncreated, 
Endao.
Original God.

Siurgesusil: Locative sing of siurgeso (beginning), noun form from siurg, itself formed from sil (in) + urg (to go). 

Eanathe: (Irregular) past tense, third pers sing of ois (to be). Note that the verb "to be" is irregular in all the descendant languages of Juralic. Thus in Chalcran the verb "to be" is as, and the third person past tense, equivalent to the Atlantean eanathe, is irassa. In Helvran, "to be" is oz, and the third person past tense is id. Finally the Yalland for "to be" is oiroven, and the third person past tense is oirodo. The third person gas different endings for masculine, feminine and neuter, but these are only obvious in Chalcran and Yalland, and of course the original Juralic.

Bour: Nom sing of bour (great)

Thehon: "Creator", from theh (to create) with suffix -on, equivalent to English -er or -or.

Can: Can mean own or, as here, self.

Dithehax: Di- is a prefix meaning dis- or un-. Thehax is the past participle of theh.

Endao: En- is a prefix meaning original, basic.

 

3. Plein     luphuyu e  risayu aisondur, thehathe   tontousun           rota       deican. 
Filled with light and air       being, he created   everything    out of Himself.

Luphuyu: Gen sing of lupho (light). This comes from Jur. lo:pho:, and would normally be *loupho in Atlantean. In fact the North Atlantean form, lupho, was adopted in the general language. Compare also Chalcran lupo, also with the "u". The N. Atlantean dialect is in some cases closer to Chalcran than standard Atlantean.

risayu: Gen sing of ris (air).

aisondur: present participle of ois (to be) (irregular).
Note the Atlantean tendency to use participles, present as here, or past, in place of the clauses English uses, which may begin with "as.." or be separated by "and". So "being.." in place of "as he was..", or simply "filled..".

thehathe: past third pers sing of theh (to create)

deican: Himself, properly deihcan, where the "h" went missing. Compare also sueican (herself), zueican (itself) and heican (themselves). With the first and second persons, can (self) was not usually used at all, just the accusative pronoun on its own. However, in the third person, the form with can was usual, as there might otherwise be ambiguity as to whether the words referred to someone else ( "he created everything out of him", ie: another person) or "himself", as is here meant.

 

4. Enan thuyan       tuaincar         e       naohuar,       nundar           e         gestar       dorienaxa,
     
A         wind   to the south and to the west, to the north and to the east    sent

Sentence construction: Note the use of the past participle, doreienaxa, "sent", used instead of the English conjunction plus clause: "after he had sent a wind..."

tuaincar, naohuar, nundar, gestar: the allative form of these nouns, meaning "(sent) to the south, etc". Gest comes from Jur. *geste:, which would normally have become *yest in Atlantean, but in fact the Helvran version of the word was adopted: gest. Quite a few words were adopted into Atlantean with Helvran spellings, when the Helvrans possibly dominated the Atlanteans and Chalcrans, before the Atlanteans moved off west around -350. Other examples include pueggis ("battle"), cf Helv prigz; daizen ("lord"), cf Helv. daiz; and belda ("galley"), cf Helv. beld. (These all came from common Juralic roots). It can be seen that these words tended to be military or denote forms of government, tending to add to the conclusion that the Atlanteans, at that time, were under the thumb of the Helvrans. In the case of gest, it seems likely that the Helvran form was taken over to distinguish it from yest, "red", which in Juralic was the same word as "east", ie gest (the idea being that the sky is red in the east at sunrise). It is notable that possible confusion between the two words may have led to Jur. gest, meaning "red", vanishing from both Helvran and Yalland. Chalcran kept giest for both meanings. 
There is another related Juralic word, *ghe:sto:, meaning "dawn", which is yesto in Atlantean. Yestiso in Atlantean means "morning". Atlantean also has a number of personal names from this root, eg Gesteyu, Yesteyu, and river names like Ghesse, all showing complete mixes of forms beginning with "y", "g" or "gh".

 

5. danathe dao  heihain saophettun   e       bourban mayan       e    tontix ernathen  daolix.
     gave    God them    awareness  and great      power  and all     became   gods.

danathe: past tense, third person singular of dan, to give. Note that when a clause, or anything else, precedes the main part of a sentence, the verb of the main section comes next, before the subject (here: "God").

heihain: the dative form of the third person plural pronoun. Such dative forms only existed for pronouns in the third person, in the classical language, and then only in literary use. Otherwise the form would be the same as the accusative. But it always preceded an accusative pronoun or noun, so there would not normally be any confusion.

saophettun: accusative of saophettu, "awareness". Saophette, on the other hand, meant "consciousness". Both forms came from Atlantean saoph, "to understand". This in turn descended from Juralic saoph, which actually meant "to study". It changed its meaning in all the later Juralic languages. The original Juralic word for "to understand" was "*weuz", which died out later, but was preserved in certain related words in Atlantean, such as feyette ("lore" later "magic"), and feyetton ("magician"). There had always been another word for "lore" in Juralic, *sa:phe:, which came to mean "learning" in Atlantean (saphe).

mayan: accusative of maya, power. The original Juralic was *ma:ya:, the grade 1 root. (See  Historical grammar of Juralic languages,1, introduction and verbs, for details about the different grade-changes in Juralic).

The grade 2 form, *ma:iya: meant "control, influence", and became mai in Atlantean (with an irregular declension).
Grade 3, *ma:uy, was the verb "to control, govern", which became maoy in Atlantean.
Note that an Atlanchalcric
noun, *ma:y, meaning "good", developed from the Juralic root *ma:ya:, with a change of meaning, which seems to have been that anyone with power or influence must be good!  This became obsolete in this form in Atlantean, but survived in the comparative and superlative forms (better, best) as maiss and mailc (both irregular). In Chalcran the basic form survived as ma, meaning "good" in the sense of right or useful. This too had comparable comparative and superlative forms, mass and mach.

Daolix: strictly means divine, here translated as "gods".

 

6. Thai  buou anthuix         eathen enuix, per thiai buou eathen sualix,                   
Former two    wind-gods were     male, but latter two  were female,    

Thai: plural of thair etc "that" or also "the former" (irregular declension).

Thiai: plural of thial, etc, "this" or also "the latter" (irregular declension).

anthuix: nom plural of anthuye, "wind-gods". An- is a prefix meaning adding personalisation (ie: the winds here are people, or gods).

 

7. e      anthuyetix                        enuanathen, tuaince e  naohue, nunde e    geste. 
and  the pairs of wind-gods   married       south and west,    north and east.

anthuyetix: the old dual form in the plural, translated here as "the pairs of".
 

 

8. Ian taiyathe dao tuaincanthuyan    ei lemb tuaincar       dimeu    thain     luphun e 
Now   told    God the South Wind to take to the south  some  of  that  light and 

Taiyathe: past tense, third person sing of tail, "to tell". This verb comes from the second grade Juralic form, *ta:il, "to talk". The first grade was *tala (story) > Atl tal (story) and sayatal (history, literally "story of peoples, where people = saya)
Also linked was Juralic *talda (personal name) (first grade) > Atl. talt, and the second grade form taild (to call someone something) > Atl. tailt. Note that Atlanteans normally had a first personal name (enultalt), a second personal name (buoutalt) and a family name (tonbennaitalt).

lemb: "to take". Note another word for "to take", rett", which means "to procure, snatch". Lemb is more neutral and means "take" in the sense "remove".

dimeu: "some, a little", from di ("not") and meu ("much"). The Juralic word *ameu:bu:, which had the stress on "e:u" became Atl meu. There were other related forms to this in Juralic, but their forms in Atlantean were quite different, due to the fact that stress in Early Juralic was sometimes variable. Thus Early Juralic *ame:ba: (quantity, number)(stress on the "a") > Late Juralic: amba, emba, abba. This was amba (multitude) in Atlantean, as well as the suffixes - emba, -abbe or -ebbe, meaning " a collection of", eg: felemba, a group of trees.
Then Early Juralic *ame:ba, (number, quantity), with the stress on the "e", > (a)meb > Atlantean meu. This was now the same as meu < *ameu:bu:(see above).

luphun: accusative sing of lupho (light). This is from Jur, grade 1 *lo:pho:, in the North Atlantean dialect form (see above). Related is Jur. grade 2 lo:ipho: (heat) > Atl laipho, and Jur grade 3 lo:phyen > Atl luphien ("to brighten").

 

9. laiphun, deucies         exathe          theh    enun bourbun ousun ahneyun,  til folgiensan.
heat , 
   so that        he could   make    a     great       being   fiery    the    Sun.

 

laiphun: "heat" (see above, under "luphun").

ousun:  "being", accusative singular of ouso. The Juralic for this was *o:so:, a noun form from *o:is, "to be" > Atlantean ais. (See also "tontousuyu" at top of page.). Anouso was a word deliberately invented by Atlantean philosophers, with the prefix an-, for personalisation, and meaning a" pantheistic god", or more literally, a "personal divine being". Anousto then meant "pantheism".

ahneyun: "fiery", accusative of the adjective related to Atl. ahna, "fire". 

 

10. Dorse ernathe folgiens dayun ceyun.
      
Thus  became   Sun       god    fifth.

dayun: accusative singular of dao, "god". Atlantean, unlike some languages, uses the accusative after the verb "to become": only ais, "to be", requires the nominative. Dao is one of the few Atlantean verbs which has a completely irregular declension. Its suffixes are unpredictable, largely because it is such a short, one-syllable verb, that endings have frequently dropped off or been reduced.

 

11. Uyehe taiyathe naoanthuyan  ei lemb naohuar          dimeu luphun, per denun laiphun. 
     
Similarly He told  West Wind  to take  to the west  some light,    but   no      heat.

uyehe: "similarly". This is the adverbial form of ul, "similar". Ul is also a preposition meaning "like". Related too is the conjunction ulle, meaning "as".

denun: "no" (accusative case of the adjective den). There are many other words linked to the basic Juralic root, *dekh:, "no", which was used as a prefix to make a verbal statement negative. This became de (h)- in Atlantean, and could also be used attached to a noun in the sense of "a-" or "non-". The basic word "no" (as opposed to "yes") is deh in Atlantean (Chalcran: dech: Helv: dek; Yall: deck). There is also dehles, which strictly means "never", but was often used as an emphatic form of negativisation. Additional linked words are dehettu ("nothing"), dehon ("nobody"), dehiettu ("destruction") and dehimettu ("nihilist"). This last word was invented in the 780s to identify the new terrorists of the period, and is formed using the suffix -imettu, from -im + itto, and meaning the equivalent of the English "-ism".

 

12. Dorse thehapheth          noura, daodie cintuye.
  
      So      was created    Moon ,  god     sixth.

thehapheth: past passive, third person, of theh ("to do").

daodie: female god - formed adding the feminine ending -ie to dao. Note the "d" reappears before this suffix. It is normally lost, but of course the original Juralic for dao was *da:uda, and for a female god, it was *da:udille. It is also evident in related languages like Chalcran: doda and Helvran dad.

 

13.  Narcehe enuanathen         folgiens e     noura. 
         
Then       were married     Sun   and  Moon. 

enuanathen:  third person plural, past tense, of enuan ("to marry, become married" - intransitive sense). The transitive form of the verb is enien. The root of these words is *e:n- in Juralic, with the basic meaning "single, a(n)", leading to Atlantean en ("a, an", with the "e" pronounced short). There is also Juralic *e:no: > Atl eino, meaning "a person", the adjective of which, einul, interestingly soon came to mean "male". ("Female" was sual, from the root meaning "woman"). Another version of the original  Juralic word, namely *e:un, led to Atlantean en ("one"), with the "e" pronounced long. Juralic *e:un is of course the origin of Atlantean enuan, in the sense of "to become one". Another Juralic root was *e:na:, (Atl: eina) meaning "basic, fundamental", and related to this was *ena (Atl: en) ("seed, germ"). The former is used as a prefix in Atlantean, en-, with the meaning of "original, basic", and by extension, "self-". But as can be easily imagined, all of these very similar words and meanings easily became confused in later Atlantean. 

 

14.  Nundanthuye   e       gestanthuye doriaphethen nundar  e     gestar, deucies    exathen       theh  
      North  Wind    and  East Wind   
   were sent       north  and  east,    so that   could   be created 

douriaphethen: third person plural past passive of dourien, "to send", itself formed from dour "to move" plus transitive suffix -ien. Note that in the passive, as in a number of other moods and tenses involving lengthy suffixes, the -en of the suffix disappears. 

 

15. meu   pustix tincsix      luphuyu,    tincix.
    
many small sparkles of light,  (the) stars.

tincsix: plural of tincso "glint, sparkle". 

tincix: plural of tincu, "star".  Both these words are linked, of course, and derive from Juralic *tink, "to sparkle". Tincso adds the noun-making suffix -so to the verb. Tincu , from Juralic tinku, is also from the same root originally (as stars are "sparkling" or "twinkling" objects). 

 

15. Per en can  enu ernathe    dao,     naohuisuyu      antincu.
         But only 
   one  became  god,     Evening        Star.

en can: only, alone. From Jur. *e:un kan. literally "one itself". En can is indeclinable in Atlantean. It can also be a preposition, followed by the genitive case, in which case it means "except". The same word, written as one, ie: encan, means "unique" and in this case is a declinable adjective.

enu: en governing "antincu", hence the ending "u".

 

16. Thial eathe diehe        dao      sentul,         pear           nitaildaxa                   huaccul    bei     einaibe.
      This
  was     formerly  god  seventh, though      it was miscalled      eighth   by     humans.

diehe: the adverbial form created, unusually,  from a preposition, dia ("before") (+ehe).  Dia came from Jur. dira: 

pear: from Juralic perer (although). The North Atlantean form with "ea" was adopted by standard Atlantean, probably to avoid confusion with per ("but"). 

 

17. Ian    thehathe     dao       can     zuayan   e     dunan, tommanan ernaxan. 
    
Now    created  God Himself   water   and earth,    World       become. 

Note again the use of the past participle of ern ("to become"), ie: ernaxa, to translate which into English, we have to use a subordinate clause.

 

18. Engio    e     duna ernathen    dai,    per tommana  can        dehles.
        
Sea     and earth became gods, but  World     itself      in no way.

Dehles: as mentioned above, this literally meant "never". It was used colloquially to mean "not" in an emphatic form. Here it is again used emphatically and in an abbreviated expression, which in English we would have to translate "but the World (definitely) itself did not".

 

19. Narcies  thehathe    tontan teccan tommanasil,   failix,     fondix         e           enai      scatisan.
      
Then     he created  all          life     on earth, plants, animals, and   mankind    lastly.

Teccan: accusative singular of tec, sometimes written tecc. The original Juralic root, *tegga, meant "day", but this meaning became antiquated in later Atlantean and Chalcran, probably from Atlanchalcric times. It remains in the days of the week, eg: nouratecc ("Monday"), literally "moon-day", as in English; tuainnecc ("Tuesday"), where the "te" of "tecc" has been absorbed - this word literally means "south-day"; and so on through the week. Tec also remained in classical Atlantean as a poetical or literary word for "life", as here. It was kept alive in the philosophy of "genandourso" ("apartness"). The normal word adopted in standard Atlantean for "life" is iasai. This comes from Juralic Ya:sisu: ("year") > ya:sisu:i: (plural form), which came to mean "life". Iasai thus preserves the old form of the plural, and is declined as a plural noun, despite often having a singular meaning. The correct Atlantean plural, iasix, existed as well, meaning "years". "Year" was iasu. 

failix: plural of fail, "plant". The original Juralic was *wa:ila:, and the related (grade 3) word was *wa:il ("green") > Atl. fail. Also failette ("countryside").

fondix: plural of fondo, "animal".

 

20. Deucies          exathen              saoph                enai,     aisondur saopheyix   e    tuellissix      fondai,
  In order that 
were able to    understand   people,   being   conscious and higher than  animals,

Deucies exathen saoph enai: As usual, when a word other than the subject of a sentence is placed first (here deucies), the verb follows and the real subject comes last (enai).

aisondur: present participle of ais (to be). Atlantean frequently uses present participles in places where English would use a relative clause, with who or that. Thus a proper English translation of this section is: "In order that people, who were conscious..." In Atlantean, the present participle must be adjacent to the noun it qualifies in such cases, here enai.

fondai: Ablative plural case, which is always used after comparative adjectives, and which corresponds to English "(higher) than (animals)".

 

21. per      undunissix        dai,        ye      thehapheth   tommana,  rottiurgiathe    dao graohan,  daothaxan. 
 though lowe
r   than the gods, how  was  created  world,   brought forth God Thunder, made divine.

per...:  another clause dependent on enai. Such convoluted constructions are typical of high religious literature of this period. 

ye:  this clause depends on exathen saoph ("were able to understand how...")

 

22. Naittuyehe naimiathen      zuei tainna  einain       heiheyun siurgesun.
  
      Later          reminded      its    noise mankind of its     origin.

 

naimiathen: third person singular neutral, past tense, of naimien, "to remind." Related to this verb is *no:im in Juralic, meaning to remember. This became naim in Atlantean.  Naimien is the transitive formation using -ien, meaning "to remind". It commands the dative case, see einain, dative plural ("(to) mankind") as its object (accusative in English) and the accusative for the sense ("of (its origin)") = heiheyun siurgesun, which is in the genitive case in English. Dimaimien (see in the text further on) means "to not remember", ie: "to forget".

*No:im is in fact the second grade of the basic grade root no:mo:, "eye" > numo in Atlantean (a North Atlantean form). Presumably the link in Juralic times was that you used your eyes to remember someone or something. (See also the third grade formation below). Atlantean preserves the ancient dual plural form (-et-) in the word for eyes (literally, a pair of eyes) = numeto. Yalland also has noimidoi (singular form noimoi).
The third grade development from Juralic *no:mo: was *no:umo:, meaning "spirit" or "mind". In the descendant languages, including Atlantean (noumo), this word came to mean simply "mind". Atlantean used different words for a number of subtly different meanings for the word "spirit". Thus noumencu meant "soul", from a late Juralic form *no:umenko:"  -(n)enk(o:) was a Juralic suffix meaning "part of" from the related noun meaning "part". So "soul" was conceived of as an individual part of an overall spirit. The same word is found in the other Juralic languages. 
In Atlantean, this word came to have a very particular meaning in religion (Theism) and post-750s philosophy. A separate word was used for the spirit of any living thing, namely ayuyettu. This formation comes from Atlantean ayo (Juralic *o:ilo:), meaning "ever". Linked is Atlantean ayul ("eternal") and ayuyotte ("eternity").

tainna: "noise". This is linked, as the third grade, to tanna, "sound".

 

23. Yaincu ai  cencathen einai  crehix naittuyehe    naimathen             graohan     e  mayan tontan dayun.
Whenever  fought       men  wars     later,       they remembered  thunder and might   of all      gods.

Yaincu ai: "whenever". Several interrogative and relative pronouns and can be formed using ai ("ever"), as in English, thus: ciesan ai ("whatever"), ycul ai ("wherever"), cian ai ("whoever"), ye ai ("however").

 

24. Missies dinaimathen ianan    Endan    e    pethathen cies easiasen        en can til         thehaxix         dai.
Indeed t
hey  forgot  soon Great God, and  thought    that there were  only     the   created      gods.

pethathen cies easiasen..: this means "they thought that there were.. Note that "there" is not required and hence is omitted in Atlantean. Easiasen is the third person plural of the past subjunctive of the irregular verb ais ("to be"). The subjunctive appears here as the clause it is in follows pethathen ("They thought"), ie: there is some doubt about it. The subjunctive is used in all uncertain or doubtful statements, after "to doubt", "to fear", ""to wonder". "To think", as here, as well as "to say" and "to seem" usually took the indicative, in fact, as they were more definite, except in very literary language, as in the present case.

 

25. Dao  thehathe ainurgonduehe   misse  dai     anahnughoyan,   ancrulsun,    e      andunarursun,
God 
created     continuously       more gods   volcano gods,  ice gods,  and earthquake gods,

 e       narcies sunathe thea.
 and then 
    rested     he.

anahnghoyan, ancrulsun e andunarursun: each of these words has "an-" prefixing it, which "personalises" it, and in fact needs to be translated here as "divine..." or "...gods". 

ahnughoyan: accusative singular of ahnughol, "volcano". This word stems from ahna ("fire") prefixed to ughol ("mountain"). Ughol itself was borrowed directly from Ughan, in which "mountain" is udgh. Probably the great "Gestix Ugholix", the highest mountain-range on the Great Continent, on the border of Ughrieh impressed the Atlanteans so much, that they considered them the only real mountains in existence, and took over the word for "mountain" directly from the Ughan. Even the word Ughan (Udgh) meant originally in the Ughan language something like "the people who live in mountains".

crulsun: accusative singular of crulso, the North Atlantean form from Juralic kro:liso: ("ice"). Linked is Atlantean crull, from Juralic *kroll, ("cold", again in the North Atlantean form. 

dunarursun: accusative singular of dunarurso, "earthquake". This comes from duna ("earth") and rur, "to shake" > rurso "shaking", "quake". Note that dun itself, meaning "earth", is obviously closely linked to dun ("brown"). They are the same words in Helvran (diun).

 

26. Per  dai           can,     cian naittuyehe    taildaphethen    bourdai,  rottiugiathen meu   pustissix     dai,
But  gods themselves
, who afterwards    were called  old gods, produced    many smaller    gods,

heiheyix  elthix,          cianai  taildethen    enai     til        cenndai.
  the
ir     offspring,   who        called   men  the    New Gods.

cian, cianai: cian is the nominative singular case of cian ("who"), whereas cianai is the accusative plural case (in the last part of the sentence). 

 

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