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Irregular verbs:

The irregularities in Atlantean verbs relate to changes in the final consonant of the root before suffixes beginning with a vowel. The principle of how these work is the same as for the irregular nouns and adjectives, but obviously they occur in different places. It should be noted, in particular, that such "irregularities" or changes are less variable with verbs than with nouns or adjectives, because a process of analogy often caused one particular form to spread to all the endings of a given class of verb.

 I. Verbs ending in -n, -l, or -r ,  in the root form, ie: infinitive and imperative/permissive moods.

In all cases where a vowel was added before endings (ie: in every other conjugational form),

1. -n > -m, if -m was the original Juralic ending in all cases.

Examples: lan (infinitive, to sing), lamethe (he sings).  
 nain tese (permissive, 3rd sing, let her remember), naimans (we will remember).

2. -l  > -y
Note that the form with -y spread to the infinitive and imperative/permissive cases in later Imperial Atlantean, and the forms ending with the consonant became purely literary or poetic.

Examples: tail (later tay, infinitive, to tell), tayates, (you told).
pel (later pey, infinitive, to carry), peyaxa (carried).

The subjunctive, with its suffix of -ie-, -ia-, -iera-  fell out of use entirely with these irregular verbs, because of the awkward combination of vowels which would have resulted (-yie-, etc). the indicative was used instead. (In the older language, the -l- or -z- would have remained before the subjunctive -ie suffix.)

3. -r > disappeared (if permitted by the rule of possible vowel combinations) (See Irregular Atlantean nouns

Examples: thur (infinitive, to jerk), thuonu (I jerked) but thureans (we shall jerk).
dour (infinitive, to move), douondur (moving) but doureaxen (I must move).

Again the subjunctive endings, which were originally added on the the form ending with -r, were normally replaced by the indicative in common usage.

II. Verbs ending in a plosive, preceded by a vowel, or by -r-, -l-, -n- did not change in any cases at all.

This is different to the situation with nouns and adjectives, where some final plosives would be lost if not followed by an ending, and also final unvoiced plosives after -r, -l or -n became voiced if suffixes were added. This is because the forms with the plosive, or unvoiced plosive after -r, -l or -n was extended to all other cases by analogy in earlier times.

 

III. Causative verbs with roots ending in -uan, -uen and -ien.

The endings -uan and -uen (together with -uas) were added to roots to create a causative sense, ie; to make something happen or bring it about (eg . bounuen, to have mercy, from bouna mercy). Similarly -ien was added to mean: to make something happen (eg: fulgien, to illuminate, from folgul, bright).

With all such verbs, the -en and -an part of these suffixes vanished before the vowel suffixes added on to form tenses (ie: e and o for the present, a for the past, etc).

Examples:  fulgianu (I illuminated), fulgiehen (I should illuminate). 

Exceptions to this rule are: 
1. In the future tense, only the -e- or -a- of the causative ending vanished, while the -n- remained, eg: fulgineanu (I shall illuminate).
2. The subjunctive mood was rarely used with these verbs: the indicative would be used instead.

There are a few completely irregular verbs, including ed ais (to be) and ei teh (to do).

 

 

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