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The historical grammar of the Juralic languages, 1:introduction and verbs

The sections below discuss in outline the morphology of Juralic, as far as it can be reconstructed, and then the changes which developed in the four main languages which developed from this ancestral tongue: Atlantean, Chalcran, Helvran and Yalland. The period chosen for these languages is that of their "classical" period after 200 or 250. There is much more detail on Atlantean in the articles on that language at Atlantean language.

Stress

As regards stress in Juralic, this was variable. In two-syllable words, it always fell on the first syllable. In words of three and more syllables, it was usually on the penultimate syllable if this was a long vowel, otherwise on the antepenultimate. In inflected words, with suffixes, the stress fell on the final syllable of the root, if long, otherwise on the preceding syllable. In all of the descendant languages, this lack of stress on suffix endings led to the partial or more or less complete decay of parts or all of these endings. It can be seen, that this process went furthest in Helvran, less far in Atlantean and Yalland and least far in Chalcran.

A good example of how important the position of the stress in the original Juralic word was with regard to its development in later languages can be seen in here, with two related but differently stressed words in Juralic:

Juralic: a'me:ba: (stress on first syllable)(quantity)  > Atlantean: amba/abbe (suffix meaning "a collection of") 

Juralic: ame'b (stress on second syllable)(many) > Atlantean: meu (many)

Systematic vowel and consonant changes in Juralic

One very notable feature of Juralic, which is carried over into its descendants, is a regular system of vowel and consonant changes in different parts of speech. With regard to the vowels, there are four sets of changes involved, and each can, but need not necessarily, alter three times. Thus there is a basic root meaning, with one particular vowel, and then two possible changes of vowel in a related form of speech (vowel, noun, adjective), or simply the same form of speech but with an extended meaning. The consonantal changes are in four sets, but each can only change twice, and generally speaking, these do not also include vowel changes, although this may occur.

The vowel changes are as follows in Juralic, with examples given from Juralic and Atlantean, and the meaning in English:
  GRADE 1 GRADE 2 GRADE 3
FUNCTION OF VOWEL CHANGE BASIC NOUN/VOWEL/ADJECTIVE VERB OR ADJECTIVE FROM FORM IN GRADE 1.
EXTENDED MEANING OF FORM IN GRADE 1
FURTHER EXTENDED MEANING OF FORM IN GRADE 1 OR 2. 
JURALIC/ATLANTEAN VOWELS
TYPE 1 a / a ai / ai au / ao
EXAMPLES ra:pho: / rapho raiph / raiph rauph / raoph
MEANING robbery (basic noun) to rob (verb from noun) to rape (extended meaning)
TYPE 2 e / e or ei e / e or ei (this grade absent) eu / e
EXAMPLES me:l / mel me:ul / [mel] (found in "ammel")
MEANING to eat (basic verb) to devour, swallow (extended meaning)
TYPE 3 o / o or ou oi / ai ou / ou
EXAMPLES losso / loss loiss / laiss louss / louss
MEANING freedom (basic noun) to free (verb from noun) to open (extended meaning of verb)
TYPE 4 u / u wo / (f)uo wu / u
EXAMPLES u:rthu: / urthu wo:rth / fourth wu:rth / furth
MEANING birth (basic noun) to bear, give birth (verb) to show, reveal (extended meaning of verb)

Note that these changes work for both long and short vowels in Juralic, but a short vowel sometimes has a more "basic" meaning than a corresponding long vowel.

The consonant changes are as follows. The changes are always found in initial position:
  GRADE 1 GRADE 2
FUNCTION OF CONSONANT CHANGE BASIC MEANING OF NOUN OR VERB EXTENDED MEANING OF NOUN OR VERB
JURALIC/ATLANTEAN CONSONANTS
TYPE 1 b, d, g / b, d, y bh, dh, gh / b, th, y
EXAMPLES da:n / dan     ge:ste: / gest (Helvran loan) dha:n / than     ghe:sto: / yesto
MEANING to give           east to allow            dawn
TYPE 2 p, t, k / p, t, c ph, th, kh / p, th, c
EXAMPLES kenk / (nen)cenc      tess / theuss khenk / cenc        tess /  thess
MEANING to duel             to draw to fight                   to paint
TYPE 3 kw / gw gw / gu
EXAMPLES kwapt / huatt gwapt / guatt
MEANING to say to call
TYPE 4 h / - kh: / h
EXAMPLES ha:na: / ana kh:wa:ina: / huaina
MEANING sky heaven

 

It should be noted that all the facts that I discuss here and elsewhere about the Juralic language and its successors are reproduced from the work of Atlantean linguists. I have acted merely as an editor, and here and there made comparisons with modern languages. No doubt in the future, when further archaeological discoveries have been made, we in the present age will be able to study and perhaps elaborate further on this Atlantean foundation.

1. Verbs

All roots in Juralic ended in a consonant, to which were appended suffixes for tense, mood, voice, number and person.

PRONOMIAL ENDINGS

The basic Juralic pronomial endings, which were added after other suffixes for tense and mood, are as follows. Note that there are two versions of these endings:  full ones and shortened ones (singular only). The latter were used for all tenses and moods with multi-syllabic suffixes, that is to say everything except the present, past and future tenses, and the indicative and subjunctive moods. The table also shows the developments in the four descendants of Juralic, where the shortened endings disappeared in every language except Atlantean.

 
SINGULAR JURALIC ATLANTEAN CHALCRAN HELVRAN YALLAND
  FULL SHORT FULL SHORT      
FIRST ("I") -no: -n -nu -n -nnu - (but -n in past tense) -no
SECOND ("YOU") -to: -t -tu - -ttu -t -to
THIRD-MALE ("HE") -dhe: -dh -the -th -ssa -d -do
THIRD-FEMALE ("SHE") -sa: -s -se -s -ssa -d -ro
THIRD-NEUTRAL ("IT") -kh:a: -kh: the -th -cha -d -co

PLURAL

             
               
FIRST ("WE") -no:s   -nos   -nni -n -ni
SECOND ("YOU") -te:s   -tes   -tti -n -ti
THIRD-MALE ("THEY") -dhe:n   -then   -ssi -n -di
THIRD-FEMALE ("THEY") -se:n   -sen   -ssi -n -ri
THIRD-NEUTRAL ("THEY") -khe:n   -then   -chi -n -ci

To form moods and tenses, vowels and/or consonants were added to the root of the vowel. The pronomial endings were added on to these. Note that although there were separate words for pronouns, these were not normally used, except for emphasis, in any of these languages apart from Helvran.

INDICATIVE MOOD

PRESENT TENSE

In Juralic, the vowel added corresponded to the last vowel of the root. If this was a, e, i or y, then -e: was added. If the root vowel was o, u, or w, then -o: was appended.

PAST TENSE

Juralic added -a: to the root before the pronomial endings.

FUTURE TENSE

Juralic added the syllable -e:ra to the root.

 
JURALIC ATLANTEAN CHALCRAN HELVRAN YALLAND
PRESENT        
e: e i e
o: o u o
         
PAST        
a: a a o e
         
FUTURE        
e:ra e:a ira ir eri

Some examples from the Juralic verb GRAD (to fall) are:

He falls (present tense):   JUR: GRADEDHE;   ATL: GRADETHE;   CHALC:  GRADISSA; 
  HELV: (NIR) (I) GRODED;   YALL: GRAUDHODO

We fell (past tense):   JUR: GRADANOS;   ATL: GRADANS;   CHALC: GRADANNI;
HELV:  DOR (we)  GRODON;   YALL: GRAUDHENI

PLUPERFECT

Juralic appended -a:ge. This did not survive into Atlanchalcric, and Atlantean and Chalcran used the past tense of "to do" plus the past participle. In Helvran, -a:ge > o:ve.
In Yalland, the meaning of the pluperfect was  represented by the past tense of "to have" plus past participle, but the Juralic ending did survive into Yalland, albeit with a different meaning.
 In Yalland, -a:ge > evi. This was just used in the first person singular (ie -evino), to stand for the so-called "reincarnating "I"". This religious notion, which produced a sort of timeless tense, a mixture of past, present and future, was originally copied from the language of S. Numedean, and later taken over by Atlanteans of the Naturalist faith. See the section "APPENDIX: THE STRANGE CASE OF THE FIRST AND THIRD PERSONS" at the end of Atlantean language

PAST PERFECT, FUTURE PERFECT TENSES:

These tenses seem not to have existed independently in Juralic, but were formed or created in the successor languages using  auxiliary verbs and past participles.

For the past perfect tense (ie "I have eaten"), Atlantean and Chalcran used the present tense of the verb "to do" plus past participle. Helvran and Yalland used the present of "to have" plus past participle.

For the future perfect tense (ie "I shall have eaten"), Atlantean and Chalcran used the future of "to do" and the past participle, while Helvran and Yalland employed the future of "to have" and the past participle.

PARTICIPLES
JURALIC ATLANTEAN CHALCRAN HELVRAN YALLAND
PRESENT        
-ondu:rt -ondur -onnor -und -oddo
         
PAST        
-akesalt -ax -acsa -aks -(eg)ire

Examples are:

Falling/fallen:   JUR; GRADONDURT/GRADAKESALT.   ATL: GRADONDUR/GRADAX
CHALC: GRADONNOR/GRADACSA   HELV: GRODUND/GRODAKS
YALL: GRAUDHODDO/GRAUDH(EG)IRE

CONTINUOUS TENSES

In Juralic, a suffix -e:kwas was added to the root for the present tense and -a:kwas for the past tense, while for the future continuous, -eukwa:n was suffixed. Pronomial endings came afterwards.
 (Example of meaning: "I am/was/will be falling")

In Atlantean, these developed into -ehuase, -ahuase and -ehuane respectively.

In Chalcran, the ending became -eccan, -accan and -iccan respectively, but these were rarely used. Normally, as was also the case in Helvran and Yalland, an adverb with the sense "continuously" had to be interpolated into the sentence with the straightforward present, past or future tense.

THE INFINITIVE MOOD

The infinitive of a verb was formed in Juralic by attaching the ending -o:wan to the root, eh GRADOWAN (to fall).
This ending died out everywhere except in Yalland, where it became  -oven.
In Atlantean, it developed as a root form, preceded by EI (or ED before a vowel).
In Chalcran, the form IDI preceded the root.
In Helvran, the root alone was used.

THE IMPERATIVE MOOD

From the original Juralic, this just consisted of the root of the verb, for use in the second person singular and plural (ie Fall!). This was the same in the descendant languages, except for Atlantean and Chalcran, which used the root followed by the second person of the verb "to do" (ie TEH in Atlantean, and TIECH in Chalcran).

THE CONDITIONAL MOOD

Juralic interpolated -the- between root plus -e/-o or -a and endings. This survived in Atlantean as -he- in the present and past tenses, eg GRADEHES (she should fall). In Yalland it became -cci-, eg GRAUDHOCCIRI. The other languages used auxiliary verbs.

THE NECESSITATIVE MOOD

This corresponds to "must" in English. Juralic interpolated -kese. This only survived in literary Atlantean as -xe in the present, past and future, eg GRADEXETHEN (they must fall). The other languages expressed the meaning with adverbs and phrases.

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

In Juralic, this was formed by interpolating -y- between the root and the tense and pronomial endings. Thus 
Juralic YE:/YO:  /YA;  /YE:RA for present, past and future became

Atlantean:  ie/io  ia  iera     Chalcran:  i/iu     Helvran:  je (and caused mutation of root vowel)  Yalland: yo

Note that only (literary) Atlantean retained the original forms for the past and future.

 

THE PASSIVE VOICE

In Juralic, -p- was interpolated between the root and tense vowel and the pronomial endings. This survived into the descendant languages, but only as a literary formation.

Thus, JUR:  -pe-   ATL:  -phe-   CHALC:   -ppe-   HELV:   -be-   YALL:   -pi-

Eg:        JUR: LEMBEPETO   ATL:  LEMBEPHET   CHALCR:  LEMMIPPETTU   HELV:  LEMBEBET
               YALL:  LEMBOPITO  (You are taken).

 

NEGATIVISATION

In order to make a verb negative, the original Juralic method was to attach the prefix dekh- to the verb. This was followed in the later languages, eg Atlantean de(h)-, Chalcr: dech-,  Helv: dek- and Yall: decc-.
These were literary forms, however.

INTERROGATIVES

The Juralic method of putting a verb phrase into the interrogative (ie "Is he falling?")  is not precisely certain. It was probably done simply with a questioning intonation of the voice. Helvran and Yalland place the personal pronoun after the verb. Atlantean and Chalcran add CIR / CIBB (from Juralic KIRB meaning what?) before the verb form.

 

There were various irregularities in the conjugations of some verbs in the descendant languages, especially in Atlantean. For more details about these, go to Atlantean language

 

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