The historical grammar of the Juralic languages, 1:introduction and verbs
The sections below discuss in outline the morphology of Juralic, as far as it can be reconstructed, and then the changes which developed in the four main languages which developed from this ancestral tongue: Atlantean, Chalcran, Helvran and Yalland. The period chosen for these languages is that of their "classical" period after 200 or 250. There is much more detail on Atlantean in the articles on that language at Atlantean language.
As regards stress in Juralic, this was variable. In two-syllable words, it always fell on the first syllable. In words of three and more syllables, it was usually on the penultimate syllable if this was a long vowel, otherwise on the antepenultimate. In inflected words, with suffixes, the stress fell on the final syllable of the root, if long, otherwise on the preceding syllable. In all of the descendant languages, this lack of stress on suffix endings led to the partial or more or less complete decay of parts or all of these endings. It can be seen, that this process went furthest in Helvran, less far in Atlantean and Yalland and least far in Chalcran.
A good example of how important the position of the stress in the original Juralic word was with regard to its development in later languages can be seen in here, with two related but differently stressed words in Juralic:
Juralic: a'me:ba: (stress on first syllable)(quantity) > Atlantean: amba/abbe (suffix meaning "a collection of")
Juralic: ame'b (stress on second syllable)(many) > Atlantean: meu (many)
Systematic vowel and consonant changes in Juralic
One very notable feature of Juralic, which is carried over into its descendants, is a regular system of vowel and consonant changes in different parts of speech. With regard to the vowels, there are four sets of changes involved, and each can, but need not necessarily, alter three times. Thus there is a basic root meaning, with one particular vowel, and then two possible changes of vowel in a related form of speech (vowel, noun, adjective), or simply the same form of speech but with an extended meaning. The consonantal changes are in four sets, but each can only change twice, and generally speaking, these do not also include vowel changes, although this may occur.
The vowel changes are as follows in Juralic, with examples given from Juralic and Atlantean, and the meaning in English:
Note that these changes work for both long and short vowels in Juralic, but a short vowel sometimes has a more "basic" meaning than a corresponding long vowel.
The consonant changes are as follows. The changes are always found in initial position:
It should be noted that all the facts that I discuss here and elsewhere about the Juralic language and its successors are reproduced from the work of Atlantean linguists. I have acted merely as an editor, and here and there made comparisons with modern languages. No doubt in the future, when further archaeological discoveries have been made, we in the present age will be able to study and perhaps elaborate further on this Atlantean foundation.
All roots in Juralic ended in a consonant, to which were appended suffixes for tense, mood, voice, number and person.
The basic Juralic pronomial endings, which were added after other suffixes for tense and mood, are as follows. Note that there are two versions of these endings: full ones and shortened ones (singular only). The latter were used for all tenses and moods with multi-syllabic suffixes, that is to say everything except the present, past and future tenses, and the indicative and subjunctive moods. The table also shows the developments in the four descendants of Juralic, where the shortened endings disappeared in every language except Atlantean.
To form moods and tenses, vowels and/or consonants were added to the root of the vowel. The pronomial endings were added on to these. Note that although there were separate words for pronouns, these were not normally used, except for emphasis, in any of these languages apart from Helvran.
In Juralic, the vowel added corresponded to the last vowel of the root. If this was a, e, i or y, then -e: was added. If the root vowel was o, u, or w, then -o: was appended.
Juralic added -a: to the root before the pronomial endings.
Juralic added the syllable -e:ra to the root.
Some examples from the Juralic verb GRAD (to fall) are:
(present tense): JUR: GRADEDHE; ATL:
GRADETHE; CHALC: GRADISSA;
fell (past tense): JUR: GRADANOS; ATL:
GRADANS; CHALC: GRADANNI;
appended -a:ge. This did not survive into Atlanchalcric, and
Atlantean and Chalcran used the past tense of "to do" plus the
past participle. In Helvran, -a:ge > o:ve.
PERFECT, FUTURE PERFECT TENSES:
For the past perfect tense (ie "I have eaten"), Atlantean and Chalcran used the present tense of the verb "to do" plus past participle. Helvran and Yalland used the present of "to have" plus past participle.
For the future perfect tense (ie "I shall have eaten"), Atlantean and Chalcran used the future of "to do" and the past participle, while Helvran and Yalland employed the future of "to have" and the past participle.
JUR; GRADONDURT/GRADAKESALT. ATL: GRADONDUR/GRADAX
Juralic, a suffix -e:kwas was added to the root for the present
tense and -a:kwas for the past tense, while for the future
continuous, -eukwa:n was suffixed. Pronomial endings came
In Atlantean, these developed into -ehuase, -ahuase and -ehuane respectively.
In Chalcran, the ending became -eccan, -accan and -iccan respectively, but these were rarely used. Normally, as was also the case in Helvran and Yalland, an adverb with the sense "continuously" had to be interpolated into the sentence with the straightforward present, past or future tense.
THE INFINITIVE MOOD
infinitive of a verb was formed in Juralic by attaching the ending -o:wan
to the root, eh GRADOWAN (to fall).
THE IMPERATIVE MOOD
From the original Juralic, this just consisted of the root of the verb, for use in the second person singular and plural (ie Fall!). This was the same in the descendant languages, except for Atlantean and Chalcran, which used the root followed by the second person of the verb "to do" (ie TEH in Atlantean, and TIECH in Chalcran).
THE CONDITIONAL MOOD
Juralic interpolated -the- between root plus -e/-o or -a and endings. This survived in Atlantean as -he- in the present and past tenses, eg GRADEHES (she should fall). In Yalland it became -cci-, eg GRAUDHOCCIRI. The other languages used auxiliary verbs.
THE NECESSITATIVE MOOD
This corresponds to "must" in English. Juralic interpolated -kese. This only survived in literary Atlantean as -xe in the present, past and future, eg GRADEXETHEN (they must fall). The other languages expressed the meaning with adverbs and phrases.
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
Juralic, this was formed by interpolating -y- between the root
and the tense and pronomial endings. Thus
Atlantean: ie/io ia iera Chalcran: i/iu Helvran: je (and caused mutation of root vowel) Yalland: yo
Note that only (literary) Atlantean retained the original forms for the past and future.
THE PASSIVE VOICE
In Juralic, -p- was interpolated between the root and tense vowel and the pronomial endings. This survived into the descendant languages, but only as a literary formation.
Thus, JUR: -pe- ATL: -phe- CHALC: -ppe- HELV: -be- YALL: -pi-
JUR: LEMBEPETO ATL: LEMBEPHET CHALCR:
LEMMIPPETTU HELV: LEMBEBET
order to make a verb negative, the original Juralic method was to attach
the prefix dekh- to the verb. This was followed in the later
languages, eg Atlantean de(h)-, Chalcr: dech-, Helv:
dek- and Yall: decc-.
The Juralic method of putting a verb phrase into the interrogative (ie "Is he falling?") is not precisely certain. It was probably done simply with a questioning intonation of the voice. Helvran and Yalland place the personal pronoun after the verb. Atlantean and Chalcran add CIR / CIBB (from Juralic KIRB meaning what?) before the verb form.
There were various irregularities in the conjugations of some verbs in the descendant languages, especially in Atlantean. For more details about these, go to Atlantean language
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