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The phonetic changes from Juralic to Atlantean, Chalcran, Helvran and Yalland.

1. Consonants

The Juralic consonants were these:

PLOSIVES

Labials:      p   b   ph   bh             Dentals:   t   d   th   dh            Palatals/gutturals:   k   g   kh   gh

Spirants:   s   z   kh:

Nasals:   m   n

Liquids:   l   r

Aspirate:   h

These sounded as in modern English, except for the following:

ph, th, kh, bh, dh, gh  were all pronounced originally as strongly aspirated stops.

kh: sounded like modern German "CH" in "BACH".

The table below shows original consonants in Juralic, and how they developed to Atlanchalcric  (between -900 and -500), and hence to Imperial Atlantean (300-600), Standard Chalcran (-250 onwards), Imperial Helvran (-200 - 500) and Early Yalland (-200 - 500). North Atlantean (-200 - c350) and Atlantid (-200 - c400) forms are also shown, where they vary from Early and Imperial Atlantean. Atlantean, Helvran and Yalland also continued on and changed somewhat into "late" forms after 500. Chalcran died out by 600. Where '-' is written in a space, it means that there has been no change from the earlier stage of the language. Cons. means consonant; pron. means pronounced.

Below the consonant changes, are examples of words indicating these changes (written in italics).

JURALIC ATLANCHALCRIC IMPERIAL ATLANTEAN NORTH ATLANTEAN (N)

ATLANTID (A)

STANDARD CHALCRAN IMPERIAL HELVRAN EARLY YALLAND
b

 

 

lob (long)

b

bt>tt

 

 

b (- if final)

br>bu (pron. v)

vowel - b>u - vowel
lou

b

br remains (N)

 

 

b

 

 

lub

b

 

vowel - b>v - vowel

lov

b

 

vowel - b>v
- vowel/l/m/n/r 
loiv

d

dra:dhu:
(desert)
d

dra:thu:
d (- if final)

dr>du (pron. j)
duathu

d

dr remains (N)
drathu


d, 

di [dd pron. dj]

drassu


d



drod

 

d

vowel - d>dh -vowel/l/m/n/r
draudho

g



ga:nd
(to have)


ra:go:
(son)
g



ga:nd

ra:go
g ( - if final.)
 y if initial before a vowel)

yand

vowel - g>y - vowel
rayo

g


 

 

g

gi/gh before a
gu before e
ghann


rago

g

vowel - g>kh - vowel
gond


rakh

g

vowel - g>(h) - vowel

gaudh


rauhoi>rahoi

p p

pt>tt

p (- if final)

pr>pu (pron. f)

vowel - p>ph (pron. f) - vowel

p

pr remains (N)

 

 

 

p

 

p (b initially.
pp finally)

vowel - p>b - vowel

 

p>b
(but p if final)

 

t t

 

 

c+t>cc

t ( - if final)

ti/e (pron. ts)

tr>tu (pron. ch)

c+t>cc

t

 

tr remains (N)

 

t

 

 

k+t>cc

t (d initially)

 

vowel - t>d - vowel

t>d
(but t if final)

 

 

k

ka:reb
(dear)

kwapt
(to say)

kt

c (pron. k)

careb
 kw>hw 


hwatt

ct>cc



c (pron. k)

car

hw>hu.  ks>x
huatt

ct>cc

c

 

c

carebb

hw>ch
chatt

ks>cs
kt>cc

k (g initially)

gorb


kw>gv

gvapt

vowel - k>g - vowel

k>g, but k if final


gaurev


kw>qu
quapt

 

 

bh b b (u/v/-, see above) b (u/v/-, see above) b b f
dh
dha:n
 (to allow)
th

tha:n
th

than

th ss (t initially)

tan

d

(kir)don

dh

dhaun

gh g g (u/y/-, see above) g (u/y/-, see above) g g c (cc if medial. ck if final)
ph

phe:d
(to believe)
p

pe:d
p (ph see above)
peid
p (ph see above)

p

pid
f (v between vowels)
fid
ph (pron. f)

phedh
th


prouthu:
(peace)
th


prouthu:
th


prouthu
th

ss
(t initially)

proussu

s (initially or after unvoiced plosive)

d (after vowel or voiced plosive)
praud

th (if initial)

d (after vowel or voiced plosive)
pruodo

kh




stekh
(to work)
c



ct>cc
stec

c

ct>cc


stecc

c




c

ct>cc


stiecc

k




stek
h




steh
s

 



sla:linda:
(woman)

sk, sh
lu:shu:
(slowness)

s

 



sla:linda:

sc
lu:scu:

s (pron. z between vowels)

sl>su (pron. sh)

suayinda

luscu

sl remains (N)



slalinda
s

 



slalinna

sc
luscu

z (but s initially in non-monosyllables)




slolind

liusk

s (but r between vowels or before l,m,n,r when not initial) 
(- initially before l.m.n.r)

laliddo

sk>sh

luosho

z




zlidha:
(speed)
z




zlitha:
z

vowel - z>y/i - vowel

zl>zu
zuitha

z

 

zl remains (N)
zlitha

j




zlissa

z



zlid

z
(- initially before l,m,n,r)


leun

kh:(guttural X)




ru:kh: (command)





ruh
h (not sounded after cons.)
(pron. sh after vowel
- initially
ruh
h



 

h (ch after vowel)





(ruch - obsolete)
k




riuk

cc (c if initial. ch if final)




ruocc
kh:(guttural X)w

kh:wa:ina:
(heaven)
hw

hwaina:
hu

huaina
hu

cc (c if initial)

cana
gv

gvain
qu

queno
m


mente:
(epoch)
m


mente:
m (n if final)


mente

mn>nn

m

 

m


menn

(m+cons.>mm)

m (n if final)


mind

 

m


midd

 

n


prank
(to win)
n


pranc
n

nk>nc
puanc

n

nk>ng(N)

prang

n
(n+cons.>nn)


prann
n
(n+cons. - cons. voiced if intervocal or final)

prang
n
(n+plosive.>doubled plosive)


prack
l



trilda(luck)
l



trilda:
l
(vowel - l>y - vowel)


tuilda
l



trilda
l
(vowel - l>ll - vowel)

l+plosive>doubled plosive
tridda

l


plosive+l>doubled plosive (not initially)
trild

l

lk/lg/ld/lt>unstressed e or other vowel between l and cons.

trilido

r


narka:
(after)
r


narca:
r
(vowel - r>- - vowel)

nar[a]
r



r
(r+plosive>doubled plosive

nacca
plosive+r>doubled plosive


nork
r
rk/rg/rd/rt>unstressed e or other vowel between r and cons.

naurke
h






ho:rnu:
(tree)
h





ho:rnu:
h (not sounded after cons. After vowel pron. sh)
(Initially - )

ournu
h (not sounded after cons. After vowel pron. sh)
(Initially remains)(A)
hournu

 

h

(after vowel, h>ch)




hournu

h
(k if final)





horn
h
(- if final)





horno
w


we:z
(to know)
w (v initially)


vez
u (f initially)


fey

(v initially)(A)

viz
- (Preceding cons. doubled)
(Initially b)
bij
v (initially or after vowel)
- (if after cons. )
viz
w (initially)
u (before vowel and after cons.)
v (between vowels)
wez
y



ya:sisu:
(year)
y



ya:sisu:

y
(i before vowels and often elsewhere)
iasu
y



 

i




iasu
j
(- intervocally or before a cons.)


jaiz
y (initially and before vowels)
- intervocally


yerairo

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